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Hugo O'Conor, the founding father of the city of Tucson, Arizona authorized the construction of a military fort in that location, Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón, on August 20, 1775 (near the present downtown Pima County Courthouse).
During the Spanish period of the presidio, attacks such as the Second Battle of Tucson were repeatedly mounted by Apaches.
The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón Tucson was probably first visited by Paleo-Indians, known to have been in southern Arizona about 12,000 years ago.
From 1877 to 1878, the area suffered a rash of stagecoach robberies.The floodplain of the Santa Cruz River was extensively farmed during the Early Agricultural Period, circa 1200 BC to AD 150.These people constructed irrigation canals and grew corn, beans, and other crops while gathering wild plants and hunting.In 1885, the University of Arizona was founded as a land-grant college on over-grazed ranch land between Tucson and Fort Lowell. Veterans Administration had begun construction on the present Veterans Hospital.In 1890, Asians made up 4.2% of the city's population. The population increased gradually to 13,913 in 1910. Many veterans who had been gassed in World War I, and were in need of respiratory therapy, began coming to Tucson after the war, because of the clean dry air.
In 1912, when Arizona statehood became reality, the total number of different flags that had flown over Tucson now numbered five: American, Spanish, Mexican, Confederate, and the State of Arizona.